[资源分享] 智能手机扩展坞系统

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 楼主 | 2011-10-20 22:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Smartphone Docking Systems to Unlock Smartphone Potential and Drive Standardization of Interfaces

智能手机扩展坞系统发掘了智能手机的潜力并推动了接口标准化

By: Vanessa Lee and Stephen Harris Cypress Semiconductor
作者:Vanessa Lee
Stephen Harris
赛普拉斯半导体


The smartphone era has revolutionized the way in which people communicate conduct business and browse the internet. There is little doubt that smartphones are here to stay however with the recent introduction of netbooks and tablets the smartphone market may find itself infringed upon by more intuitive devices in the coming years.

手机已经彻底地改变了人们的交流、商业运作和浏览互联网的方式。虽然现在上网本和写字板问世了,但毫无疑问智能手机依旧存在,在接下来的几年里,智能手机市场也许会通过更直观的设备来占领自己的一席之地。

In a few years time your average smartphone will be capable of processing the tasks you typically use your laptop for now. Mobile computing speed and capability has been advancing at an exponential rate in the last five years. Multimedia and interconnectivity has been a theme among smartphones released in the 2009 and 2010 time period. Users now more than ever are looking for new ways to unlock their smartphones entertainment potential. This evolution will eventually change the way users incorporate smartphone technology into their daily lives and expect the same from complimentary devices such as mobile accessories.

在几年之后,普通的智能手机将能够处理现在用笔记本电脑完成的工作。在过去的5年里,手机的计算速度和处理能力一直在成指数地增长。多媒体和互联一直是2009年和2010年发布的智能手机的卖点。相比以前,现在的用户正在寻找新的方法来发掘智能手机的娱乐潜力。这种发展最终会改变用户在日常生活使用智能手机的方式,同样,他们也希望其他设备同样优秀,如手机配件。

Mobile phone accessories have for the most part always aimed to provide users with more convenient and intuitive ways to use their mobile devices. In the next decade the mobile accessories market will be looking to provide smartphone users better ways to access their smartphones whether it be audiovisual content document manipulation or data storage.


有多半手机配件旨在为用户提供更加方便和直观的使用方法。在接下来的十年里,无论是视听内容、文件处理还是数据存储,手机配件市场将会给智能手机用户提供更好的方法来访问他们的智能手机。

As evident in phones already in the market as of 2010 there is already a movement towards increasing user interface to allow users to take advantage of smartphones high processing power. The key to translate this computing power into improved user experience is leveraging the mobile accessories market to product products which improve user interface and overall utility of the smartphone. This challenge of how to enable users to take full advantage of our mobile devices may always plague phone manufacturers as users concept of mobile computing grows.

2010年,手机市场上已经有一种趋势:逐渐增加用户接口来使用户尽可能多的利用智能手机的高处理能力。把计算能力转化成改善用户体验的关键是平衡手机配件市场和产品、完善用户接口和智能手机的总体效用。随着用户手机计算概念的增长,如何让用户能够充分利用手机潜能的挑战可能总是缠着手机生产商。

What are Current Smartphones Lacking?

当前的智能手机缺乏什么?

An important requirement of any dock peripheral is port expansion. Smartphones today have a very limited number of ports. Although this is not necessarily consistent with future devices the number of ports and the size of those ports will most likely remain small to preserve mobility and durability.
This limits the number of devices users can connect to their smartphones. For example
smartphones are not able to display to a monitor and connect to a keyboard simultaneously for document manipulation.


任何扩展坞外设的重要功能都是端口扩展。今天的智能手机端口的数量和形状比较小。端口有限,这样保证了手机的灵活性和耐用性。虽然这对于未来设备来说并不一定是必需的,但这就限制了用户可以连接到智能手机的设备数量。例如,智能手机不能连接到显示器显示的同时连接到键盘进行文件处理。

Different peripherals exchange data through different interfaces. Manufacturers are hesitant to incorporate all of these interfaces on a smartphone because of design obligations such as maintaining hardware durability and a small footprint. Many monitors today for example only accept HDMI or VGA signals. In instances such as this users are required to grab a converter in order to connect their devices something which is not ideal when trying to connect to several peripherals all at once. Even though the smartphone has begun incorporating more interfaces into devices support for legacy devices is low.

不同的外围设备通过不同的接**换数据。制造商不愿意把所有这些接口都放到智能手机上,因为有些设计是必须保证的,诸如保持硬件耐用性和尽可能小的封装。例如,今天大多数显示器仅接受HDMIVGA信号。在这种情况下,用户必须使用一个转换器来连接这些设备,当试图同时连接到多个设备时,就不理想了。虽然手机已经开始把更多的接口放进去,但对传统设备的支持也很低。

The growing popularity of applications and online media stores such as iTunes and the App Store mean users are storing more purchased content on their phones. Flurry reported a 15% increase in Apple App Store purchases in Q4 of 2009 alone [2].
Because users are purchasing more content on their smartphones
they are more inclined to backup their valued content more routinely. Backup processes are lengthy inconveniencing users who download new content daily. A quicker and more convenient method for storage is required.


应用和网络媒体商店(如iTunesApp Store)的日益普及意味着用户正在把更多的购买来的内容储存到手机。据Flurry报道,单在2009年第四季度,在苹果App Store的购买就提升了15%。因为用户正购买更多的内容放到他们的智能手机里,他们更倾向于习惯地备份有价值的内容。备份过程是漫长的,使用户不方便每天下载新的内容。所以需要一种更快捷、更方便的存储方法。

What is in a Smartphone Dock?

什么是手机扩展坞?

A smartphone dock simply expands the user interface and functionality of a given smartphone. Most of the intelligence and processing power is still executed within the phone with some clever interfacing and processing blocks located within the dock. Features may include charging multimedia output to a monitor or television LAN connection Bluetooth connection and connecting other HID devices and additional memory. Ideas have been formulating in the past five years for these devices but some limitations in interface standardization have slowed development.

智能手机扩展坞简单地扩展了特定智能手机的用户接口和功能。大部分的智能和处理能力仍然是在手机内执行,在扩展坞里面有一些智能接口和处理模块。功能可能包括充电、多媒体输出到显示器或电视、局域网连接、蓝牙连接及连接其他HID设备以及扩展内存。在过去的五年中已经为这些设备制定了概念,但是接口标准化的局限性使发展缓慢。

Smartphone to Dock Connectivity

智能手机扩展连接性

The first design discussion revolves around smartphone and dock connectivity. Choosing an interface which is both robust and well-adopted are important criteria for this type of an application.

第一次设计讨论是围绕着智能手机和扩展连接性。这种应用最重要的标准是要选择一个具备良好的鲁棒和易用的接口。

Because USB connections are so popular amongst peripheral and memory connections it is the most practical digital connection interface for connecting smartphones with flash drives monitors keyboards and other HID devices. Of course there are many other existing interfaces which allow for higher throughput however USB remains the most popular and versatile in terms of peripheral and memory connections the two main focuses of this discussion.

因为USB连接在外围设备和存储器中是非常普遍的,它是智能手机和flash、显示器、键盘及其他HID设备之间的最实用的数字连接接口。当然还有很多其他的接口存在,用来提高吞吐量,然而USB一直保持是最流行、通用的外围设备和存储方面的连接器件,这也我们要重点讨论的两个方面。

The inherent properties of USB hubs and bridges require very little tweaking to satisfy dock requirements. The single master-multi slave architecture of hubs available today provides an ideal method of communication to memory and peripherals. However phones will need to be equipped with either a host interface or a USB On-The-Go (USB OTG) interface before they can be capable of hosting a hub. Luckily OTG interfaces are already widely adopted in the smartphone industry which makes the USB solution even more attractive.
Hubs can be used to expand the minimal number of ports on smartphones to enable more device connections in the smartphone docking station.


要满足扩展坞的需求,只需对USB hubbridge的固有特性做要很少的调整。今天已有的单主-多从的hub架构,它对于存储设备和外设来说是理想的通讯方式。然而,手机要么需要host接口要么需要USB On-The-Go (USB OTG)接口,才可有能力做hosting。幸运的是,OTG接口已经广泛应用在手机产业了,这使USB解决方案更具有魅力。Hub可是用来扩展智能手机的端口数目,这样可以使更多的设备连接到智能手机扩展坞。

As mentioned previously a primary goal of the smartphone dock is to provide a larger user interface for smartphones. This can include the addition of monitors keyboards speakers and other HID devices. This trend is already apparent in some phones in the market today which contain either an HDMI port or an analog-video port. Currently this type of interfacing technology requires controller or interface logic blocks within the device. For legacy devices however the only way to send display data is through existing USB ports. This presents a significant issue in how to send a VGA signal or HDMI signal for example over the phone’s existing USB port. Decoding this data will require dedicated software and hardware. Although USB has begun to take over many peripheral digital connections there still exist some interfaces which require interface conversion in order to be USB compliant. There is also the issue if managing data flow in which case hubs may need to be customized to specific interfaces.

如前所述,智能手机扩展坞的首要目标是为智能手机提供一个更大的用户接口。这可能包括增加显示器、键盘、扬声器和其他HID设备。包含HDMI或模拟视频接口这一趋势在当今市场上的电话中已经很明显。目前,这种类型的接口技术通常需要在设备内部有控制器或接口逻辑模块。然而,对传统设备的唯一方法是通过现有的USB接口发送显示数据。这就存在一个重要的问题,如何把VGA信号或HDMI信号发送到现有的USB端口。给这些数据解码将需要专门的软件和硬件。虽然USB已经开始负责许多外设的数字连接,但仍存在一些接口需要转换成USB兼容的。也有一个这样的问题,如果管理数据流,集线器可能需要按客户要求定义接口。

Bridge chipsets can be used to expand the number of ports and interfaces of smartphones to allow for more peripheral connection options. In traditional laptop architecture north and south bridges are used to control the data flow from the CPU to memory and peripheral devices. Similar architecture can be applied to the smartphone dock. These types of devices provide signal conversion and allow for a wider range of peripheral connection. Referring to the above example a USB signal can then be translated to an HDMI signal for monitor or television consumption without requiring any hardware from the device. As more bridge and interconnection ships are developed users will be able to expand their mobile accessories devices to suit their specific needs.

桥芯片组可以用来扩展智能手机的端口和接口数目,这样可以连接更多的外设。在传统的笔记本结构中,北桥和南桥都是用来控制从CPUmemory和周边设备的数据流的。类似的结构也可以应用到手机扩展坞。这种类型的器件提供了信号转换,从而允许更为宽泛的外设连接。还拿上述的例子来说,USB信号可以被转化为HDMI信号,从而可以连接显示器或者电视等消费类产品,无需任何其它硬件。随着越来越多的桥和连接器的发展,用户可以方便地扩展他们的手机配件来适合特定的需要。

Role of Memory Storage

记忆储存的作用

With a dedicated memory controller moving content into a memory reservoir within the docking station will provide a much faster backup solution than traditional computer connections. An example of a memory controller which is capable of completing these tasks is Cypress’s West Bridge product. This setup optimizes the time it takes to back up valuable purchased content from a user’s smartphone.

如果具备一个专门的存储器控制器,移动内容到扩展坞的memory区域会比传统计算机连接的备份速度更快。能完成这些任务的存储器控制器的一个例子是赛普拉斯的西桥产品。这种设置优化了从用户智能手机备份有价值的购买内容的时间。

The mobile smartphone dock provides a convenient and safe location for backing up content on mobile smart phones. To achieve this the dock requires a memory controller to ensure proper data movement error correction and wear leveling. Drives such as this are widely available and easy to adopt making memory addition an easy feature to include in the docking station.

手机的智能手机扩展坞提供了一种方便的、安全的智能手机内容备份的方式。要达到这个目标,扩展坞需要存储控制器来保证数据的正确移动、误差纠正、
耗损均衡。这样的驱动已经广泛使用,memory外接很容易,它也很容易地包含在扩展坞系统内。


To summarize the greatest hurdle for smartphone dock development comes from interfacing between the phone’s existing USB connection and the interfaces of different peripheral systems. Memory connections are not as difficult given that many memory controllers already accept USB data.

总体来说,智能手机扩展坞发展的最大障碍来自于手机现有USB连接和不同外设接口之间的连接问题。如果存储控制器已经接受USB数据,memory连接也不是困难。

Smartphone Dock Conceptualization

智能手机扩展概念

Combining the use of hubs interface chips and additional memory will provide a high level view of what is possible given today’s smartphones and connection technology. Many of these technologies exist today and could be put together to form a solution for this type of a product. The figure below presents a block diagram of a possible smartphone dock system using interface blocks available today.

结合hub的使用,接口芯片和外部存储将为今天的智能手机和连接技术提供高水平使用的可能。很多技术到了今天,很可能集合在一起为这类产品形成一个单芯片解决方案。下图显示了今天智能手机扩展坞系统可能使用的接口模块框图。

<FIGURE1.jpg>
Figure 1 – Example of Current Implementation
1 –当前实现案例
To support legacy smartphones USB and possibly Bluetooth act as the primary connection point(s). The dock shown here provides users an expanded interface a memory bank as well as enough additional USB ports to allow for expanded memory and other peripherals. Any connected flash memory could also be used to increase the devices RAM given the proper software was installed on the device.

为了支持传统智能手机,USB(也有可能是蓝牙)将作为主要的连接点。这里显示的扩展坞给用户提供扩展接口、memory bank以及足够的额外的USB端口,来满足扩展内存和其他外设的需求。如果有合适的软件安装在器件里,那么任何连接的闪存也可以用来增加设备RAM


Possible Smartphone Dock Evolution

智能手机扩展坞发展的可能

For future devices proprietary interfaces can be incorporated to enable more dock configurations. The block diagram below is a high level example of how additional CPU cores RAM memories and network connections can be added to the dock given a proprietary interface is included in the smartphone.

对于未来的设备,专有接口可以和为一体来构成更多的扩展坞配置。下面的框图是一个高端的例子,它显示了如果智能手机里包括专有接口,那么CPU核,RAM内存,网络连接都可以添加到扩展坞。

<FIGURE2.jpg>
Figure 2 – Future Dock Implementation
2 -未来扩展坞实现方案
Having an additional CPU allows for any additional drivers to be stored in the dock device. The docks internal CPU can then be used to execute these drivers to prevent unnecessary driver storage on the smartphones limited memory. Given the large number of peripherals this is a significant amount of memory saved and allows for faster dock/smartphone operation. Although it is possible to create a smartphone dock using legacy interfaces the more exciting opportunities come when more powerful interfaces are standardized for the purpose of dock connection.


如果具备一个额外的CPU,就可以允许任何额外的驱动保存在扩展坞器件。扩展坞内的CPU可以用来执行这些驱动,可以避免不必要的驱动存储在智能手机有限的内存。如果外设数目巨大,那么这就节省了很大的内存,可以使扩展坞/智能手机的操作更快。尽管可能会使用传统接口设计智能手机扩展坞,但为了扩展坞连接有更强大的接口做到了标准化时会更是众望所归的。

Having a phone with a single port for each interface is not ideal which makes interface consolidation and standards development important. Consolidating these interfaces into a proprietary connection benefits both the smartphone design as well as the docking station. Smartphones are required to be robust. Having too many ports makes the phone vulnerable to water damage and other environmental factors. Also having a proprietary interface makes it easier to connect more obscure blocks such as that connecting to the phones CPU and LAN connection much easier. In the most ideal case all phones would share a new very powerful and interconnected universal connection as USB was when it was first released.

每一种接口都只有一个端口的手机并不是理想的,这使得接口统一和标准化的发展尤为重要。改善这些接口成为专有连接,这对智能手机设计和扩展坞都有利。智能手机需要鲁棒性。拥有太多的端口致使手机很容易受到潮湿或其他环境因素影响。同时,如果有一个专有接口,会更容易连接隐蔽的模块,例如连接到手机CPU或者局域网连接就容易多了。在最理想的情况下,当最开始发布时,所有手机都将分享一个新的、非常强大和通用互联的接口,就象USB一样。

Many sources have said that the mobile phone will become our new go-to computing device by the end of the next five years. It cannot be expected that current mobile accessories will be suitable for such powerful devices. Providing users with the option of expanding their user interface and make better use of the multimedia capabilities of their smartphones will be at the forefront of mobile accessories.

许多媒体都曾经说过,在未来五年里,手机将成为我们新的计算设备。我们不能期望目前的手机配件适合这种强大的设备。为用户提供扩大用户接口的选择,更好地利用智能手机的多媒体能力将成为手机配件的最重要功能。

With the use of hubs and interconnection chips it is definitely a possible technology which can unlock a lot of computing potential for smartphone users. Being able to display video documents and games on a full sized monitor while having additional backup storage are just a couple of benefits of the smartphone dock. Some challenges the mobile accessories group will face include port expansion interconnecting different interfaces and interface consolidation. However future developments in interface standards will play a key role in relieving these issues.

使用hub和互联芯片,确实是一个可行的技术,它能够为智能手机用户发掘很多计算潜力。能够在全尺寸显示器上显示视频、文件和游戏,同时还可以使用外部备份存储,这些只是智能手机扩展坞的几点好处。手机配件将面临的挑战包括端口拓展,不同接口互联和接口统一。然而,将来接口标准的发展将扮演解决这些问题的重要角色。

With the introduction of netbooks and tablets there promises to be exciting developments in mobile computing in the next five years. Smartphone products were the first to introduce true mobility to its users and with its rapid growth seem unmoved by these new products. However given the larger and more intuitive interfaces provided by the tablet and netbook it seems the smartphone no longer satisfies all of the mobile computing needs of today’s users. Dock development will help to bring expanded utility to smartphones which will secure and possibly expand smartphones already ubiquitous role in our daily lives.

随着上网本和写字板的问世,在今后的5年里,在手机计算领域将会有很大的发展。智能手机是第一个给用户带来真正移动能力的产品,而随着其快速增长,好像这些新产品的作用似乎不大了。然而,考虑到上网本和写字板可以提供更多的、更直观的接口,似乎智能手机不再满足当今用户的所有移动计算需要。扩展坞的发展将有助于扩大智能手机作用,它将保证和扩大我们日常生活中智能手机无处不在的角色。


1)
http://www.sd.polyu.edu.hk/iasdr/proceeding/papers/The%20mechanisms%20of%20product%20form%20classification.pdf
2)
http://www.mobilecrunch.com/2009/12/28/flurry-app-store-sees-record-breaking-christmas-50-growth-from-november-to-december/
1.
http://www.sd.polyu.edu.hk/iasdr/proceeding/papers/The%20mechanisms%20of%20product%20form%20classification.pdf
2.
http://www.mobilecrunch.com/2009/12/28/flurry-app-store-sees-record-breaking-christmas-50-growth-from-november-to-december/



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