[资源分享] LED控制

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 楼主 | 2011-11-26 23:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Intelligent Controllers Bring out the Green in LEDs
智能控制器带出了“绿色”LED

By Stuart Woodrow Cypress
作者:Stuart Woodrow赛普拉斯

Today roughly 10 billion incandescent bulbs illuminate the earth and consume roughly a fifth of the world’s energy consumption. With current ecological trends to “go green” and conserve energy many are looking at new ways to save the planet. Solar Wind Hydro and other renewable sources of energy are being invested in to replace the coal and gas burning plants which are choking the environment.

今天,大约有100亿白炽灯照明,他们消耗大约世界上五分之一的能源。随着当前“走向绿色”的生态趋势,为了节约能源,许多人都在寻找新的途径来拯救我们的地球。太阳能,风能,水能和其他可再生能源发电正在建设,用来取代煤与蒸汽这样有害环境的方式。

Another alternative to conservation is to consume less energy through smart grids and intelligent systems which only consume energy when it is required. For lighting systems LEDs combined with intelligent sensor circuits look to be a very promising method to tackle the issue of high energy consumption.
LEDs
or Solid State Lighting (SSL) consume approximately a third the power of incandescent bulbs and are much more efficient in the use of the power consumed. the pockets of manufacturers of these solutions.


另一个节约能源的替代方案是,通过智能网格和智能系统消耗更少的能量,只有需要时才消耗能量。对于照明系统,LED结合智能传感器电路看来是一个很有前途的方法,可以用来解决能耗高的问题。LED,或固态光源(SSL),其能源消耗大约为白炽灯的三分之一,他们是更有效率的运用能源方式。制造商已经有了这样的解决方案。

Watt-sucking incandescent bulbs continue to dominate the residential lighting landscape even though they are incredibly inefficient and only transfer a small portion of the energy consumed into light.
The rest of the energy is wasted and dissipates as heat through the glass enclosure. Due to these inefficiencies
incandescent bulbs are starting to be phased out in many countries around the world.
Australia and Venezuela are leading the way with phase outs this year while the United States will embark on this process from 2012 through 2014.
Compact Fluorescent (CFLs) bulbs started this process and introduced power savings of 25% to the household consumer and while generating less heat.
In fact
a 20W CFL produces the same light output as a 75 Watt Incandescent bulb.


Watt-sucking白炽灯仍旧继续主导住宅景观照明,尽管他们是低效率的,而且只转化一小部分能量为光。其余的能源通过玻璃罩作为热量浪费和消失了。由于白炽灯效率很低,他们在世界上许多国家已经开始被淘汰。澳大利亚和委内瑞拉于现阶段处于领先地位,美国将从2012年至2014年开始着手这个事情。节能灯(CFL)已经开始使用了,他们节省了家庭电源消耗的25%,而产生更少的热量。事实上,一个20W的节能灯可以和75W的白炽灯发出同样亮度的光。

Consumers were lured to the transition from incandescent to CFLs in the late 1990s by cities and towns who offered rebate programs to cause the changeover.
Consumers were enticed by the opportunity to “go green” and realize the cost savings on their utilities bill.
However
this was not a positive experience for most as they suffered from poor light quality and could not dim the CFL bulbs with conventional wall dimmers. Additionally CFLs contain small traces of mercury and need to be properly disposed of to contain the hazardous material. Many of these bulbs will be recycled and disposed of properly but most will end up in landfills and will lead to ground water contamination. The adoption rate for CFLs has been slow and is estimated to be only about 11% of the homes in the United States.
CFL technology has improved greatly over the past 5 years but the desire for a more optimal solution continues to exist.


消费者从白炽灯到节能灯的转换是在1990年代末,给城市和城镇里的人们提供折扣机制引起的转换。吸引消费者们的是“走向绿色”,实现帐单上的成本节约。然而,这对于很多人来说并不都是一个积极的体验,比如他们希望光线变暗,而节能灯不能通过调节器调节亮暗,节能灯含有少量的水银,需要适当处理有害物质。许多灯泡将被回收并妥善处理,但大多数被掩埋到垃圾场,这将会导致地下水污染。节能灯的采用率很低,在美国估计只有大约11%的家庭使用。在过去5年里节能灯技术已大大改善,但现在仍旧没有最优的解决方案。

The advances in Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technologies are rapidly increasing the adoption rate of LED lighting in both the commercial and residential markets. The promise of longer lifetime better light quality and energy savings are touted as the major factors behind the sea change from incandescent and compact fluorescent luminaries to LED. The LEDs themselves promise to consume a third the power of their incandescent predecessor but it will take the intelligence of sensors and microcontrollers to truly bring the additional power savings and financial benefits of this truly “green” technology. It is anticipated that once the payback period is less than a year the majority of consumers will be willing to invest in LED-based lighting.

半导体照明(SSL)技术的进步使商业和住宅市场的LED照明设备迅速增加。承诺寿命长,发光效果更好,并且更节能,这些都是LED替代白炽灯和节能灯的主要因素。LED只需要消耗它的前辈白炽灯能量的三分之一。它可以充分利用智能传感器和微控制器,来真正带来额外的节能和经济利益,是的真正的“绿色”技术。有专家预期,在今后不到一年的时间里,大多数的消费者都会愿意使用LED照明。

The next few years in the lighting industry will bring a pivotal moment in lighting history as countries in the EU Canada Brazil and many states in the US will govern change with regulatory steps to remove incandescent bulbs from their markets.
Local utilities in the United States are starting to introduce incentive programs for LED bulbs now which should bolster the adoption rate of LED-based lighting.
These incentives will allow consumers to offset the cost of today’s high-cost retrofit bulbs which are roughly five times the cost of their CFLs counterparts.


接下来的几年里,照明行业将会在照明史上迎来一个关键时刻,在欧盟国家,加拿大,巴西和美国的许多州将会逐步采取措施使白炽灯泡从市场上退出。美国当地公用事业已经开始引入LED灯激励计划,这将加速LED照明采用速度。这些刺激措施将会弥补消费者购买新式灯的高额费用(它大约是节能灯成本的五倍)。

Lighting Science Group(LSGC) based in Satellite Beach FL recently announced that utilities under the Mass Save Program are now offering its customers in the Northeast rebates for retrofits new construction and other custom applications.
LSGC reported in its press release that it was chosen due to their rigorous LM-79 lighting performance testing on their DEFINITY line of LED bulbs
PROLIFIC Series streetlights and Shoebox fixture. Rebates from these Northeast Utilities will certainly reduce the cost barriers and increase the adoption rate of LED luminaires by the consumer.


照明科学小组(LSGC)总部位于佛罗里达州卫星海滩,他们最近宣布,为大众拯救计划下的公用事业在东北老工业基地改造、新建建筑和其他用户应用中给客户提供折扣。在LSGC新闻公报中报道,选择原因是基于他们在LEDDEFINITY线上严格的LM-79照明性能测试,量产系列丰富,以及鞋盒式的夹具。这些在东北地区的打折必将减少成本障碍,增加消费者LED灯具的使用率。

The cost of today’s LED Luminaires is dominated by the LEDs Electronic Drivers Optics and Heat sinks.
Many manufactures of LED lighting are working to get these costs down while increasing the number of features to attract consumers. Others are working to add intelligence which can easily be integrated into the electronics used to drive the LEDs.


今天的LED灯具的成本是主要由LED,电子驱动,光学,和散热器组成。许多LED照明设备制造商都在努力降低成本,同时增加特色来吸引消费者。还有的在努力增加智能控制,这些可以很容易的整合到LED驱动电子设备。

Most LED lighting luminaires use electronics to control the light output by pulsing the LEDs with a technology called Pulse Width Modulation (PWMs).
These PWMs control how much light output is generated by controlling the percent of time the LED is driven “on”.
This driving method also allows for the LED to be dimmed and can be made to work with conventional wall dimmers found in most homes. The electronics driver inherent in the design can also be used to further gate the function of the light output.
Widely available
sensors are the key to determining when light is required and how much so the LED Luminaire provides optimal efficient output.


大多数LED照明灯具使用电子控制通过脉宽调制(PWM)技术来控制LED光输出。这些PWM通过控制LED为“开”的时间的百分率来控制产生多少时间的光输出。该驱动方法也可以把LED调暗,可以与大多数家庭里墙上的传统调光器一起使用。设计里固有的电子驱动也可以用来进一步控制光输出的功能。很明显,传感器是决定什么时候需要光、需要多少光的关键,所以LED灯具提供了最佳的有效输出。

Intelligent microcontrollers are plentiful in the marketplace today and most of them can be programmed to perform a variety of intelligent LED driving functions.
Many new integrated solutions are arriving on the technology front everyday as driver manufactures work to reduce component count and cost of the Bill of Materials(BOM) to their customers.
Optimally
these products provide design engineers with all the building blocks required to build intelligent LED Drivers in a single monolithic thermally enhanced package.
PowerPSoC now integrates Cypress’ award winning programmable system (PSoC) on a chip with CSAs
Hysteretic Controllers a 5V DC-DC regulator and power FET s into a single integrated circuit.
This System-on-a-Chip(SoC) is an erector set of lighting functions enables designers the ability to create platforms of drivers which will span across all marketing requirements desired by their companies.
The ability to reconfigure power with this level of integration can simplify hardware design
lower testing time and decrease bill-of-materials costs.
PowerPSoC offers designers both digital and analog I/Os which allows for a wide variety of sensor interface options.

智能微控制器在当今市场上已经极大丰富,他们大部分都可以编程来执行多种智能LED驱动功能。每天都有许多新的集成方案出来,驱动厂商致力于为客户降低BOM器件数量和成本。最理想的情况是,这些产品能够提供给设计工程师一个单芯片方案,包含所有的建立智能LED驱动所需的模块。PowerPSoC现在整合了赛普拉斯的可编程片上系统(PSoC),包含了CSA,滞后控制器,一个5VDC-DC调节器和电源FET ,形成了一个单芯片集成电路。片上系统(SoC)是照明功能的设计基础。它使设计者拥有驱动设计的平台,可以满足他们公司所期望的所有市场需求。使用这一集成方案可以重新配置电力,可简化硬件设计,减少测试时间,降低BOM成本。PowerPSoC可以给设计者提供数字和模拟两种I /O,可以有多种传感器接口以供选择。

Figure 1.The Cypress PowerPSoC has dedicated power electronics for driving LEDs up to 1A and 32V per channel.
The onboard controller also has digital and analog I/Os which can interface most sensors to its internal A/D Converters


1。赛普拉斯的PowerPSoC有专门用于LED驱动的能耗电路,每通道最高可达1A32V。板上控制器还有数字和模拟I / O,可以连接大多数传感器到其内部A / D转换器。

Programmable controls for lighting have been around for years and used sensors to determine when the lights should be on off or dimmed to the right light levels for the environment.
Since many of the LED luminaires already have electronic controllers on board
these sensors can be easily interfaced to or integrated into the intelligent subsystem.
These sensors can be used to control a single light fixture or control the lights for an entire building complex.
Applications can range from using a photo sensor to control an LED spotlight in your driveway to using an occupancy sensor to reduce energy costs in commercial office buildings.


可编程控制照明已存在多年,使用传感器来决定何时灯光应该打开、关掉或根据环境情况调整为合适的光亮。因为许多LED灯具板上已经有电子控制器,这些传感器可以容易的连接或整合到智能子系统。这些传感器可以用来控制一个单一的灯具或控制整栋建筑复杂的照明。应用范围很广,可以从车道里使用一个光传感器来控制LED聚光灯,到商业办公大楼里使用传感器来降低能源成本。

Sensors can be easily integrated into Intelligent Lighting Systems by interfacing them to decision making microcontrollers like PowerPSoC.
One of the most technologically advanced LED retrofit bulbs on the market today was developed by a company called MSiSSL(www.msissl.com) out of South Florida. The Intelligent PAR38
or iPAR-38 uses a Hall Effect Sensor interfaced to the PowerPSoC to determine the required output current desired by the user.
MSiSSL’s patented Powerband technology allows the flexibility of producing light outputs based on 10 watts
12 watts or 16 watts with a simple twist of the band.  “Retailers have different lighting needs throughout their stores and this one product can power down to save watts where the lighting needs are less or power up to provide additional punch where lighting needs are greater” said John Burke VP of Sales for MSiSSL.


传感器可以很容易地集成到智能照明系统,可以把他们连接到期望的处理器,例如PowerPSoC。目前市场上技术最先进的LED灯泡之一是由一家来自佛罗里达南部的叫MSiSSL(www.msissl.com) 的公司开发的。智能PAR38,或iPAR-38,使用霍尔效应传感器连接到PowerPSoC来确定用户期望的输出电流。MSiSSL的专利Powerband技术,采用简单的band方法可以有基于10瓦,12瓦,16瓦的灵活的光输出。”零售商在他们的商店有不同照明需求,这一产品可以在光线不太需要的地方降低功率节约能源,或者可以在需要强光的地方增加照明” MSiSSL的销售副总裁约翰·伯克这样说。



Fig. 2 MSiSSL’s intelligent iPAR-38 is one of the most intelligent LED retrofit bulbs on the market today.

2 MSiSSL智能iPAR-38是当今市场上的最智能的LED灯之一。

The iPAR38 will create lumen outputs of 550 lumens 650 lumens or 800 lumens based upon the position of the magnetic ring.  This will allow lighting specifiers to optimize their design both in terms of light output as well as light energy savings and all with one unique bulb.

根据磁环的位置不同,iPAR38可以输出550流明, 650流明或800流明。这将使得照明规格做到最优化设计,无论是从光输出还是光能量节省上,并且所有这些都是在一个灯泡上实现的。



MSiSSL’s Powerband™ Technology utilizes a Hall Effect Sensor implemented in the Cypress PowerPSoC to determine the amount of Lumens to drive from the LEDs.

MSiSSL™的Powerband技术使用赛普拉斯PowerPSoC里的霍尔效应传感器实现,以确定驱动LED的流明数量。

Ambient Light sensors like the ON Semiconductor NOA1302 and the OSRAM SFH 5711 can be used by LED street lights to turn on when the sun goes down. These photodiode based sensors offer a spectral sensitivity which is similar to the human eye and can be used to adjust light output from LED luminaires with accurate precision. The output of these sensors is an analog voltage that can be easily characterized with A/D converters also available in the Cypress PowerPSoC. Alternatively the NOA1302 integrates the ADC on board and can be programmably controlled and communicated to by the PowerPSoC through instantiating and I2C bridge.The use of ambient light sensors and
microcontrollers can be used to output light proportionally to the light required corresponding to the natural light available.


环境光感应器例如安森美半导体的NOA1302 和欧司朗的SFH5711都可以用于LED路灯,当太阳下山时打开。这些光敏二级管传感器具有一种类似人类眼睛的光谱灵敏度,可以用来精确的调整LED灯光输出。这些传感器的输出是模拟电压,可以很容易地连接到赛普拉斯PowerPSoC 里的A / D转换器。或者,NOA1302可以板上集成ADC,通过PowerPSoCI2C编程控制和通讯。环境光感应器和微控制器的使用可以用来根据自然光线输出需要的适当的亮光。

Motion Detectors are another type of sensor which can be integrated into office buildings security systems and warehouses to only come on when motion is present.
Active motion sensors are available where a beam of light is injected from a transmitter to a receiver and differences are detected when the beam is crossed.
Alternatively passive motion sensors
also known as PIR (passive infrared) Sensors are typically used on security lights which detect the heat of a human body.


运动探测器是另一种类型的传感器,可以整合到办公大楼、安防系统及仓库,只有运动存在时才会打开。主动式运动传感器可以在下面情况下使用:一束光从发射机注入到接收机,光束交叉时检测到不同。被动式运动传感器,也称为PIR(被动式红外线)传感器,通常用于能够检测人体热量的安全灯。

The devices themselves are simple electronic components similar to a photo sensor. The infrared light bumps electrons off a substrate and these electrons can be detected and amplified into a signal. PIR Sensors are used to detect the presence or occupancy of an object.

器件本身是类似于光传感器的简单电子元件。红外灯电路可以自动探测并放大成一个信号。被动式红外传感器是用来检测对象的存在或占用。



Figure 2. A Dual PIR Sensor is used to accurately detect motion

2。双被动式红外传感器用于精确运动检测

A recent Gateway report by the Department of Energy(DOE) demonstrated substantial energy savings in projects which retrofit their lighting projects with sensor based LED luminaires.
One of the projects was a T.J. Maxx parking lot in Manchester NH which retrofitted 22 high pressure sodium and 6 metal halide lamps with 25 LED luminaires.
The report highlights a 58% energy savings due to the LEDs and the use of occupancy sensors which could reduce the light output when cars were not present.
The payback period for this application is estimated to be around three years for this New Hampshire area business.


最近美国能源部(DOE) 发布的报告显示,在种类众多的照明项目中,以传感器为基础的LED照明设备确实节省了能源。其中一个项目是在Manchester NHT.J.Maxx停车场,这里有22盏高压钠灯,6盏金属卤素灯,25 LED灯。报告中强调,58%能源节省是由于LED以及传感器的使用,当没有汽车时可以减少光输出。在新罕布什尔州商业区域经营,这种应用的回收期估计大约为三年。
The Lighting Science Group recently reported that they had installed LED WallPack fixtures in bachelor housing facilities at US Naval Bases in Ventura County CA.
These outdoor luminaires were designed for perimeter security illumination and also incorporate occupancy sensors to properly manage energy usage.
LSGC’s press release reports
“The luminaires will last up to three times longer and will consume less than half the amount of energy than conventional light sources”.
The compelling testimony also proclaims
“To save additional energy each fixture contains and on-board occupancy sensor that reduces fixture wattage and light output from 35 to 10 watts when it senses inactivity after a set period of time”.


照明科学小组最近报告说,他们已经在加州Ventura County的美国海军基地的单身宿舍安装了LED 墙壁灯架。这些户外照明专门为边界安全照明设计,和传感器一起实现妥善地管理能源使用。LSGC的新闻发布中报告,“这种照明方式将比传统照明能持续长达三倍的时间,却只消耗少于一半的能源量”。同时还宣告,“为了节省额外的能源,每个灯架都包含板上传感器,以减少灯架瓦特数,当检测到一定周期没有活动后可以把光输出功率从35瓦降到10瓦”。

A wide variety of additional control sensors and logic exist today which will further enhance the intelligent lighting controller’s ability to conserve the world’s energy consumption.
Temperature
humidity pressure audio and ultrasonic sensors are all available today and can be easily interfaced to intelligent lighting drivers to make decision upon required system light output.


现在存在的各式各样的外加的控制传感器和逻辑将进一步提高智能照明控制器的能力,以节省世界能源消耗。温度、湿度、压力、声音和超声波传感器,构成了今天所有可用的传感器,他们可以很容易的连接到智能照明驱动,以决定是否需要系统的光输出。

As the popularity of LED Lighting grows over the coming years its inherent efficiency will lead to lower energy usage and costs around the globe. However we will continue to see more and more uses of lighting as can be seen with colored skyscrapers dotting our landscapes and the addition of many more sockets around our homes. LEDs have unlocked many new opportunities for lighting which were not possible with their incandescent counterparts. It will take the intelligence of microcontrollers and sensors to make sure we are “smart” with our energy usage and that we truly utilize the “green” advances whose time has come to fruition. Look to many established as well as upstart lighting companies to chase the green and bring truly “green” intelligent lighting luminaires to the market in the years to come.

随着未来几年LED照明的增长与普及,其固有的效率将会降低整个地球的能源消耗和成本。我们会继续看到越来越多用途的照明,可以看到彩色的摩天大楼点缀风景,也可以在我们的家里增加更多的插座。LED开启了许多新的照明发展机遇,这些都是白炽灯不可能实现的。它将充分利用智能微控制器和传感器,来确保我们“聪明”地使用能源,并且真正的利用“绿色环保”的好处,这个时代已经到来。许多现存以及新成立的照明公司都在追求绿色,并在以后的岁月里给市场上带来真正的“绿色”智能照明。

 楼主 | 2011-11-26 23:34 | 显示全部楼层
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